Mainely we divided the types of fabric into three main categories
- Woven Fabric
- Knitted Fabric
- Non-woven Fabric
During the nonwoven fabric production, yarn manufacturing also as yarn preparation processes (required in woven fabric) is eliminated. Thanks to this reason nonwoven fabrics are cheaper as compared to traditional fabrics. The good advantage of nonwoven fabrics is that the speed with which the ultimate fabric is produced.
All yarn preparation steps are eliminated, and therefore the fabric production. Itself is quicker than conventional methods. But the method is more automated, requiring less labor than even the latest knitting or weaving systems. The nonwoven process is additionally effi-cient in its use of energy.
A textile engineer named Garnett developed a special carding device to shred this waste back to fibrous form. The Garnett machine, though greatly modified, today still retains his name and is a major component within the nonwoven industry. Later on, manufacturers in Northern England began binding these fibers mechanically (using needles) and chemically (using glue) into batts. These were the precursors of today’s nonwovens.
The term ‘nonwoven’ rises from quite sixty years ago when nonwovens were considered as cheaper alternative of conventional textiles and were generally made up of carded webs using textile processing machinery. The nonwovens industry is extremely sophisticated and profitable, with healthy annual growth rates. It’s perhaps one among the foremost intensive industries in terms of its investment in new technology, and also in research and development. Therefore, the nonwoven industry as we all know it today has grown from developments within the textile, paper and polymer processing industries. Today, there also are inputs from other industries including most branches of engineering also because of the natural sciences.
Definitions – Non-Woven Fabric
Different definitions of nonwovens are available by different organizations.
Accord-ing to the ASTM D 1117–01, nonwovens
“A textile structure produced by the bonding or interlocking of fibers, or both, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means and combinations thereof”
According to the quality ISO-9092:1988
“Manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly orientated fibers, bonded by friction, and/or cohesion and/or adhesion, excluding paper and products which are woven, knitted, tufted, stitch-bonded incorporating binding yarns or filaments, or felted by wet-milling. Whether or not additionally needled. The fibers could also be of natural or man-made origin”.
The Association of Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, USA (INDA)
“A sheet, web or batt of natural and/or man-made fibers or filaments, excluding paper, that hasn’t been converted into yarn, which is bonded to every other by any of several means.
To distinguish wet-laid nonwovens from wet-laid paper materials. The subsequent differentiation is formed.
(a) quite 50 you interested in the mass of its fibrous content is made-up of fibers with a length to diameter ratio greater than 300. Other sorts of fabrics are often classified as nonwoven if.
(b) More that half-hour by mass of its fibrous content is formed from fibers. With a length to diameter ratio greater than 600 and/or the density of the material is a smaller amount than 0.4 g / cm3.
The European Disposables and Nonwovens Association (EDANA)
“A manufactured sheet, web or batt of directionally or randomly oriented fibers, bonded by fric-tion, and/or cohesion and/or adhesion, excluding paper and products, which are woven, knitted, tufted or stitch-bonded, or felted by wet-milling. Whether or not additionally needled. The fibers could also be of fabric or man-made origin. they’ll be stapling or continuous filaments or be formed in situ”. to differentiate wet-laid nonwovens from wet-laid papers, a cloth shall be considered a nonwoven if, (a) quite 50 you interested by mass of its fibrous content is formed -up of fibers. with a length to diameter ratio greater than 300, or (b) quite half-hour by mass of its fibrous content is made from fibers with a length to diameter ratio greater than 300 and its density is a smaller amount than 0.40 g / cm3.”