Developments of Denim Fabrics – Traditionally the denim fabric is formed of 100 percent cotton indigo dyed warp and white weft yarn of coarser counts. The fabrics are woven on projectile, rapier, air-jet and shuttle loom. Initially, the denim fabric was developed as workwear. Now the scenario is different. Denim fabrics have gained immense popularity and accepted by all regardless of gender, age-groups, and profession.
Innovation and Development
The major focus areas of innovation and development are comfort, performance, and environmental friendliness of various processes. Comfort and fit are vital aspects of denim garments. So, tons of research has been done to form stretch denim. elastane fibers are incorporated into the material. Lycra and Spandex are utilized in weft yarn. Ring and open-end core-spun yarns also are utilized in denim to supply stretch property. Elastic ply yarns produced on TFO also are wont to make stretch denim fabrics. aside from the multi-component, Bi-component synthetic filament yarns also are wont to provide stretch.
This fabric shows the normal look and feels but performance is best than the 100 percent cotton denim in terms of higher abrasion resistance. So, the sturdiness of the material is quite 100 percent cotton denim. Other synthetic fibers like polyester and polypropylene fibers also are used. for creating softer denim fabrics especially for ladies wear, blend of Cupro, Modal, Promodal, Cancel, and Rayon are getting used. Bamboo fibers, hemp fibers, and their blends are getting used to form denim fabrics.
Impart a Fancy Effect – Developments of Denim Fabrics
To impart a fancy effect, different sorts of fancy yarns are getting used. The samples of such yarn are slub yarn and multi-count yarn. The slub can vary in terms of thickness, length, and twist. Such yarns are often manufactured at ring spinning and OE spinning machines by attaching special attachment. one among such attachments is Amsler control. Such fabrics give a very unique effect after washing treatment.
Two methods of warping are practiced. These are ball warping and direct warping. Dyeing of warp yarns is completed either by rope dyeing method or Slater dyeing method. Rope dyeing is taken into account better in many aspects like higher production, long runs, better dry and wet fastness, and lot-to-lot shade consistency. Indigo dyes are generally won’t to dye warp yarns. In some cases sulfur black and blue dye also can be applied before indigo dyeing to realize darker shades. Sometimes, sulfur dyes also are applied after the yarn is indigo dyed.
A lot of research is happening to develop the dyeing process which produces a low impact on the environment. Clariant has developed a variety of low sulfide dyestuffs and processes to get various indigo shades at a low dyeing cycle to scale back the consumption of water. Diester has patented Indigo Vat 40 percent solution. It offers various reminder blue and claims a 60-70 percent reduction in consumption of Sodium hydrosulfite
Developments of Denim Fabrics – Denim fabrics are mostly woven on high-speed air-jet looms. Various loom manufacturers are offering a variety of modifications to weave fault free top quality fabric. The modifications are wiped out the frame structure of the loom to attenuate vibrations, pre-winder, auxiliary nozzles, stretch nozzles, relay nozzles, and weft brakes . Traditionally denim is 3/1 right twill fabric. Nowadays 2/1 twill, broken twill, zig-zag twill, reverse twill, Herringbone twill weaves are utilized in denim fabrics.
Washing of denim garments is one of the foremost important processes. This process adds tons useful to the ultimate garment. within the washing process, the fading effect is imparted to the denim products. There are many methods to impart faded effects. The traditionally washing as well as is completed using any of the methods or combinations like stone washing, washing with strong bleaching agents like hypochlorite, potassium per magnet. These processes aren’t environment friendly. Alternative methods are developed. Cellulases enzymes are utilized in place of pumice to impart an abraded effect.
Developments of Denim Fabrics – Bleaching Technique
Laccase based bleaching technique is developed. This enzyme only attacks indigo dyed yarn bit does affect the nature of white weft yarn. It also can be wont to bleach fabrics containing elastane filaments without losing the stretch property. Laser-based techniques are wont as well as to give faded effect. Further, this system also can be wont to create motifs on denim fabrics. Ozone base denim washing treatments are developed. during this process, ozone gas is employed as bleach, which attacks indigo dyes and destroys to make the faded look.
Functional finishes like antibacterial finishes, UV- protection finishes are applied on denim fabrics to enhance the functional performances of denim fabrics. to reinforce the sturdiness of the finished fabric, nanoencapsulation of the herbal extracts was performed and therefore the results showed good resistance for microbes even after 30 industrial washes. the utilization of nano-clay is additionally reported to impart old look, soft handle, flame retardant, and antibacterial properties to denim fabrics.