Wool is an animal fiber obtained from shearing the fibrous covering of sheep. It is produced in most parts of the planet. Sheep are commonly shorn for his or her fleece once or twice a year. Therefore, the wool obtained is understood as fleece. An efficient shearer would remove the fleece from a sheep in 2 minutes. Wool is additionally faraway from the pelts of slaughtered sheep. By chemical treatment or bacterial action as well as without damaging the hide. Wool is usually dirty and contaminated with natural fats, grease, and perspiration residues. These impurities are removed during wool scouring and wool carbonizing to urge cleaned wool.
Natural Fiber – Breed Of The Sheep
The breed of the sheep also because the environmental conditions strongly affect the standard of wool. The wool also differs in fineness, length. Purity counting on the part of sheep from which it’s taken. Wool could also be broadly classified into fine wool, medium wool, long wool, and carpet wool. Wool is typically spun into two sorts of yarn i. e. woolen and worsted. Woolen yarns are usually made up of short-staple fibers. Which are held loosely and given only a limited twist during spinning? Worsted yarns are much finer, regular, tightly twisted. Smoother than a woolen. These are usually spun from long-staple fibers.
Features of Wool Fibre – Animal Fiber
Wool fiber features a natural crimp thanks to its unique chemical and body. This causes the fiber to bend and switch, giving wool an inherent three-dimensional crimp. Because it’s naturally elastic and resilient. Rapid wrinkle recovery, durability, bulk, loft, warmth, and resistance to abrasion. It can easily absorb up to half-hour of its weight in moisture without feeling damp as well as clammy. Wool contains moisture in every fiber. It resists flame without chemical treatment. rather than burning freely when touched by flame, wool chars. It stops burning when it’s far away from the source of the flame. Wool is self-extinguishing as well as it’ll not support combustion.
Silk – Animal fiber
Silk is a protein fiber of insect origin. Produced as a fine filament of long length. From the liquid body substance of silkworm (Bombyx Mori). The silkworms eat only the leaves of mulberry. Silk as well as a polypeptide, formed from four different amino acids. Silk fibers are relatively stiff and show good to excellent recovery as well as from deformation counting. On the temperature as well as humidity conditions. These fibers exhibit favor able heat-insulating properties but due to their moderate electrical resistivity. They have a tendency to create a static charge.
Cycle of Silkworm
The four stages within the life cycle of silkworm are egg, caterpillar, larva (cocoon) as well as the butterfly. Caterpillars begin as well as of the eggs after hatching for 12 days. During the expansion period of the caterpillar, fresh mulberry leaves are its food. After 35 days, the caterpillars are ready as well as for spinning silk. They stop eating and produce as well as their cocoon for a few days.
Silkworm makes its cocoon as well as from a twin filament that extrudes from two silk glands in its head. These filaments are coated and glued together as well as by a gummy substance called sericin. The worm gradually as well as gets covered. It is captivated during a strongly structured. Cocoon made up of continuous as well as silk strand (maybe up to a mile in length). This filament silk is unwound from the cocoons.
The fibroin of silk (animal fiber )is decomposed by concentrated acids into the constituent amino acids. Silk is more immune to alkalis as well as organic solvents, except hydrogen bond-breaking solvents. Continuous exposure of silk fiber to sunlight leads to strength loss. It begins to yellow at high temperatures as well as disintegrates above 165 °C. The moisture absorption leads to a short-lived 10–25 field strength loss of silk fiber.